extraintestinal pathogenic escherichia coli
Escherichia coli, ESCHERICHIA COLI | Pathogenic E. coli (Introduction), Virulence Profiles, Phylogenetic Background, and Antibiotic Resistance of It is likely that AIEC are able to proliferate more effectively in hosts with defective innate immunity. 39, No. Isolated from Turkeys with Airsacculitis, Human and Avian Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Infections, Zoonotic Risks, and Antibiotic Resistance Trends, Serotypes, Virulence Factors, and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Vaginal and Fecal Isolates of Escherichia coli from Giant Pandas, Hemolysin from Escherichia coli induces oxidative stress in blood, A Longitudinal Study Simultaneously Exploring the Carriage of APEC Virulence Associated Genes and the Molecular Epidemiology of Faecal and Systemic E. coli in Commercial Broiler Chickens, The Cpx Stress Response System Potentiates the Fitness and Virulence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli, Avian lipocalin expression in chickens following Escherichia coli infection and inhibition of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli growth by Ex-FABP, Comparison of Multilocus Sequence Analysis and Virulence Genotyping of Escherichia coli from Live Birds, Retail Poultry Meat, and Human Extraintestinal Infection, Involvement of virulence properties and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli strains causing pyelonephritis in children, Expression and purification of SfaXII, a protein involved in regulating adhesion and motility genes in extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli Isolates That Carry Initially, PAIs were discovered in UPEC by Goebel, Hacker, and coworkers [206,207]. E. coli bacteria often carry multiple drug resistance plasmids, and under stress, readily transfer those plasmids to other species. [8], Group II K antigens closely resemble those in gram-positive bacteria and greatly differ in composition and are further subdivided according to their acidic components, generally 20–50% of the CPS chains are bound to phospholipids.[8]. Thus why extraintestinal pathogenic variants of E. coli have evolved, and not just once but repeatedly in different branches of the species, is puzzling. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) possesses virulence traits that allow it to invade, colonize, and induce disease in bodily sites outside of the gastrointestinal tract. Escherichia coli (Latin pronunciation: [eskeˈrikja ˈkoli] Anglicized to / ˌ ɛ ʃ ə ˈ r ɪ k i ə ˈ k oʊ l aɪ /; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Tests for toxin production can use mammalian cells in tissue culture, which are rapidly killed by shiga toxin. In humans and in domestic animals, virulent strains of E. coli can cause various diseases. in an integrated broiler production chain in the absence of an antibiotic treatment, Survey on pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. 15, No. 2, 10 September 2012 | Infection and Immunity, Vol. Ulrich Dobrindt, ... Jörg Hacker, in The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins (Fourth Edition), 2015. [10], Certain strains of E. coli, such as O157:H7, O104:H4, O121, O26, O103, O111, O145, and O104:H21, produce potentially lethal toxins. Finally, in a competition model of intestinal colonization in monkeys, a wild-type P fimbriated strain exhibited no competitive advantage over an isogenic papG (adhesin) mutant [127]. Uropathogenic E. coli produce alpha- and beta-hemolysins, which cause lysis of urinary tract cells. 10, Journal of Food Protection, Vol. [37] The Dr adhesins bind Dr blood group antigen (Dra) which is present on decay accelerating factor (DAF) on erythrocytes and other cell types. Interestingly, a region comprising nine genes was found to be inserted in the type VI secretion system locus III of K. pneumoniae Kp52.145. Initially, PAIs were discovered in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) by Goebel, Hacker, and co-workers (Hacker et al., 1990; Blum et al., 1994). First, most putative extraintestinal VFs have known or postulated mechanisms through with they could or do contribute to virulence but in contrast have no documented or suspected mechanism for promoting intestinal colonization [123]. 62, No. 4, 1 August 2008 | Journal of Bacteriology, Vol. UPEC cause 90% of the UTI. However, abundant experimental evidence supports that humoral immunity is important in conferring protection against ExPEC infection. Isolated from Skin and Soft Tissue and Other Extraintestinal Infections, Antibiotic Resistance among Escherichia coli: Isolates and Novel Approaches to the Control of E. The extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) pathotype, includes uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC), and septicemic E. coli. Teresa Frisan, in The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins (Fourth Edition), 2015. Two subAB alleles have been described, and the subAB(1) gene cluster is located on the pO113 virulence plasmid [79,218], whereas subAB(2) is part of a PAI inserted into the pheV tRNA locus designated subtilase-encoding PAI (SE-PAI) [219]. [19][20][21] Common routes of transmission include: unhygienic food preparation,[20] farm contamination due to manure fertilization,[22] irrigation of crops with contaminated greywater or raw sewage,[23] feral pigs on cropland,[24] or direct consumption of sewage-contaminated water. Putze et al. Thus, E. coli and the other enterobacteria are important reservoirs of transferable antibiotic resistance.[52]. Caenorhabditis elegans R.A. Stein, M. Chirilă, in Encyclopedia of Food Safety, 2014. [3] These pathogenic traits are encoded by virulence genes carried only by the pathogens.[3]. However, current latex assays and some typing antisera have shown cross reactions with non-E. coli O157 colonies. 10, No. UPEC, unlike diarrheagenic E. coli, have no core set of virulence factors; instead, this pathotype uses flagella to ascend the urinary tract, and a variety of adhesins, iron acquisition systems, and toxins to colonize the bladder and kidneys. Further, when considering the role of capsule and LPS in each of these settings, three separate aspects should be considered. In total there are 60 different K antigens that have been recognized (K1, K2a/ac, K3, K4, K5, K6, K7 (=K56), K8, K9 (=O104), K10, K11, K12 (K82), K13(=K20 and =K23), K14, K15, K16, K18a, K18ab (=K22), K19, K24, K26, K27, K28, K29, K30, K31, K34, K37, K39, K40, K41, K42, K43, K44, K45, K46, K47, K49 (O46), K50, K51, K52, K53, K54 (=K96), K55, K74, K84, K85ab/ac (=O141), K87 (=O32), K92, K93, K95, K97, K98, K100, K101, K102, K103, KX104, KX105, and KX106). 86, No. 8, No. UPEC have evolved from commensal E. coli by acquisition of virulence factors through horizontal gene transfer. The outbreak strain was described as an enteroaggregative hemorrhagic E. coli and constitutes a hybrid pathotype which harbor the phage-mediated Shiga toxin in a background of EAEC. [59] In March 2006, a vaccine eliciting an immune response against the E. coli O157:H7 O-specific polysaccharide conjugated to recombinant exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (O157-rEPA) was reported to be safe in children two to five years old. There are 53 identified H antigens, numbered from H1 to H56 (H13 and H22 were not E. coli antigens but from Citrobacter freundii, and H50 was found to be the same as H10).[9]. 58, No. Mixing of species in the intestines allows E. coli to accept and transfer plasmids from and to other bacteria. E. coli can harbour both heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxins. This is particularly true for the pathoadaptive monomannose-binding FimH variants, which while exhibiting enhanced fitness in the pathogenic niche actually exhibit reduced fitness in the commensal niche [50]. 22, No. [14], Gastrointestinal infections can cause the body to develop memory T cells to attack gut microbes that are in the intestinal tract. [8] The former (I) consist of 100 kDa (large) capsular polysaccharides, while the latter (II), associated with extraintestinal diseases, are under 50 kDa in size. To successfully develop a vaccine to protect against ExPEC, an understanding is required of (1) the mechanisms by which these strains escape the host’s acquired immune response, and (2) optimal immunization approaches. 301, No. LETTER. TABLE 3.4. 3, 4 February 2015 | Frontiers in Microbiology, Vol. 5, Journal of Medical Microbiology, Vol. Extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) lineages explain prolonged faecal carriage of travel-acquired extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli View ORCID Profile Boas C.L. Some E. coli strains contain a polyketide synthase genomic island (pks), which encodes a multi-enzymatic machinery that produces colibactin, a substance that damages DNA. [26] Food products associated with E. coli outbreaks include cucumber,[27] raw ground beef,[28] raw seed sprouts or spinach,[22] raw milk, unpasteurized juice, unpasteurized cheese and foods contaminated by infected food workers via fecal–oral route.

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