lion diet wikipedia
[6] The generic name Panthera is traceable to the classical Latin word 'panthēra' and the ancient Greek word πάνθηρ 'panther'. [180], A population occurs in Cameroon's Waza National Park, where between approximately 14 and 21 animals persisted as of 2009. [17], Pocock subordinated the lion to the genus Panthera in 1930, when he wrote about Asiatic lions. In Serengeti National Park, female lions favour males with dense, dark manes as mates. [26], In 2016, trace fossils in Tight Entrance Cave were identified as being the scratch marks of a Thylacoleo. [14], In the 19th and 20th centuries, several lion type specimens were described and proposed as subspecies, with about a dozen recognised as valid taxa until 2017. Sea lions consume large quantities of food at a time and are known to eat about 5–8% of their body weight (about 6.8–15.9 kg (15–35 lb)) at a single feeding. [47] It appeared as a symbol for strength and nobility in cultures across Europe, Asia and Africa, despite incidents of attacks on people. Breeding programs need to note origins of the participating animals to avoid cross-breeding different subspecies and thus reducing their conservation value. They spend an average of two hours a day walking and 50 minutes eating. [92] Although lions and their prey are officially protected in Tsavo National Parks, they are regularly killed by local people, with over 100 known lion killings between 2001 and 2006. [239], The lion was a prominent symbol in ancient Mesopotamia from Sumer up to Assyrian and Babylonian times, where it was strongly associated with kingship. [104] They usually avoid fully grown adult elephants, rhinoceroses and hippopotamus, as well as small prey like dik-dik, hyrax, hare and monkey. Another 11 animals thought to be Barbary lions kept in Addis Ababa Zoo are descendants of animals owned by Emperor Haile Selassie. [3] The genus name Panthera was coined by German naturalist Lorenz Oken in 1816. [93] A study undertaken in the Serengeti National Park revealed that nomadic coalitions gain residency at between 3.5 and 7.3 years of age. It has been listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 1996 because populations in African countries have declined by about 43% since the early 1990s. Frump said thousands may have been killed in the decades after apartheid sealed the park and forced refugees to cross the park at night. [138], Most lionesses reproduce by the time they are four years of age. There is a growing consensus that the extinction of the megafauna was caused by progressive drying starting about 700,000 years ago (700 ka). [11], The existence was first described by Sir Richard Owen in 1859. When a pride becomes too large, however, the youngest generation of female cubs may be forced to leave to find their own territory. [73] The Asiatic lion now survives only in and around Gir National Park in Gujarat, western India. As the rainforest decreased and thus gave rise to more open habitats, lions moved from West to Central Africa. Based on the placement of their skeletons, at least some survived the fall, only to die of thirst and starvation. The word 'lion' is derived from Latin: leo[4] and Ancient Greek: λέων (leon). Mane colour varies from sandy, tawny, isabelline, light reddish yellow to dark brown and black. [25] In 2009, a second image was found that depicts a Thylacoleo interacting with a hunter who is in the act of spearing or fending the animal off with a multiple-barbed spear. "Molecular genetic variation across the southern and eastern geographic ranges of the African lion, "Biochemical genetic variation in geographic isolates of African and Asiatic lions", "Phylogeographic patterns in Africa and High Resolution Delineation of genetic clades in the Lion (, "Genetic diversity, evolutionary history and implications for conservation of the lion (, "Autosomal and mtDNA markers affirm the distinctiveness of lions in West and Central Africa", The epidemiology of tuberculosis in free-ranging lions in the Kruger National Park, "Unique social system found in famous Tsavo lions", "The Mammalian Fauna of the Somali Republic: Status and Conservation Problems", "Risk and opportunity for humans coexisting with large carnivores", "A metapopulation approach to African lion (, "The effect of alternative forms of hunting on the social organization of two small populations of lions, "Practical considerations for the reintroduction of large, terrestrial, mammalian predators based on reintroductions to South Africa's Eastern Cape Province", "Lion population dynamics: do nomadic males matter? Of these, 35 coalitions included male lions that were born in the area but had left and returned after about two years of absence. This population is listed as Critically Endangered. In examining other specimens, it is estimated that the largest individual from the available sample weighed more than 160 kg, although the estimated average weight of T. carnifex lies between 101–130 kg. [259] Lancelot and Gawain were also heroes slaying lions in the Middle Ages. Tracing the origins of a lion (, "Die von mir in den Jahren 1892–95 in Ost- und Central-Afrika, speciell in den Massai-Ländern und den Ländern am Victoria Nyansa gesammelten und beobachteten Säugethiere", "New races of carnivores and baboons from equatorial Africa and Abyssinia", "Carnivora Collected By The American Museum Congo Expedition", "Untersuchungen zur Stammesgeschichte der Pantherkatzen (, "The Barbary lion and the Cape lion: their phylogenetic places and conservation", "Lost populations and preserving genetic diversity in the lion, "The evolutionary history of extinct and living lions", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, "The origin, current diversity and future conservation of the modern lion (. [260] "Lion" was the nickname of several medieval warrior-rulers with a reputation for bravery, such as Richard the Lionheart. [160] Lions in the Ngorongoro Crater were afflicted by an outbreak of stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) in 1962; this resulted in lions becoming emaciated and covered in bloody, bare patches. The mane is typically brownish and tinged with yellow, rust and black hairs. [189] It is geographically isolated, which can lead to inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity. The head and neck are the most common parts of the body licked; this behaviour may have arisen out of utility because lions cannot lick these areas themselves. Intermittent bursts of activity continue until dawn, when hunting most often takes place. Results show that adult male and female lions preferred grassland and shrubland habitat, but avoided woodlands and areas with high human density. [26], Among six samples of captive lions from Ethiopia, five clustered with samples from East Africa, but one with samples from the Sahel. Mane length apparently signals fighting success in male–male relationships; darker-maned individuals may have longer reproductive lives and higher offspring survival, although they suffer in the hottest months of the year. Some females, however, take a role raising cubs that may be left alone for extended periods. Although lions can be active at any time, their activity generally peaks after dusk with a period of socialising, grooming and defecating. Genome-wide data of a wild-born historical lion sample from Sudan showed that it clustered with P. l. leo in mtDNA-based phylogenies, but with a high affinity to P. l. melanochaita. Of 87 cubs born until 1970, only 12 reached the age of two years. [186][187] Martin composed a pantomime titled Les Lions de Mysore ("the lions of Mysore"), an idea Amburgh quickly borrowed. 186.55–225 kg (411.3–496.0 lb) in Southern Africa, This page was last edited on 11 October 2020, at 01:17. Egyptian deities associated with lions include Sekhmet, Bast, Mafdet, Menhit, Pakhet and Tefnut. [123] When confronted on a kill by lions, spotted hyenas may either leave or wait patiently at a distance of 30–100 m (100–330 ft) until the lions have finished. They soon begin to immerse themselves in the pride life, however, playing among themselves or attempting to initiate play with the adults. [78], Lions living near ranches in the vicinity of Tsavo East National Park consisted of three prides, two pairs and a single lion in 2002. The Assyrians would release captive lions in a reserved space for the king to hunt; this event would be watched by spectators as the king and his men, on horseback or chariots, killed the lions with arrows and spears. [91], Asiatic lion prides differ in group composition. Spotted hyenas have adapted by frequently mobbing lions that enter their territories. [15], One major feature of Thylacoleo is its dentition. [6], Its strong forelimbs, retracting claws, and incredibly powerful jaws mean that Thylacoleo possibly climbed trees and perhaps carried carcasses to keep the kill for itself (similar to the leopard today). [2] It is the primary cause for a decline of lion populations in Tanzania's Selous Game Reserve and Katavi National Park. Hagenbeck designed lion enclosures for both Melbourne Zoo and Sydney's Taronga Zoo; although his designs were popular, the use of bars and caged enclosures prevailed in many zoos until the 1960s. [245] Lions are frequently mentioned in the Bible; notably in the Book of Daniel in which the eponymous hero refuses to worship King Darius and is forced to sleep in the lions' den where he is miraculously unharmed (Dan 6). Its fur varies in colour from light buff to silvery grey, yellowish red and dark brown. [37] The earliest fossils recognisable as lions were found at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania and are estimated to be up to 2 million years old. Sundiata Keita of the Mali Empire was called "Lion of Mali". [36], Average head-to-body length of male lions is 2.47–2.84 m (97–112 in) with an average weight of 187–263 kg (412–580 lb) in Southern Africa and 174.9–255 kg (386–562 lb) in East Africa.


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