rammed earth in cold climates
As Cabeza et al. Examples of rammed earth work in extremely cold climates, very wet and very dry climates show the versatility of rammed earth done well. Merging the rammed earth design and engineering process together will save valuable time and money. 5 0 obj Particle size distribution is obtained by sieving the soil using different sieves sizes and weighing the amount of earth retained in each sieve. Pérez-Lombard, L.; Ortiz, J.; Pout, C. A review on buildings energy consumption information. Secondly, mixtures responses (Figure 8) are different due to the methodology of the test, which takes into account material densities in particle size distribution calculation. Wall section of the rammed earth walls (in cm). The experimental set-up in Puigverd de Lleida consists of a prototype with orientation N-S 0° and size of 2.40 m of interior width and height. Rammed earth homes routinely last for generations in many types of environments. For this reason, after the characterization at laboratory scale, two rammed earth house-like cubicles were built in Barcelona and Puigverd de Lleida (Spain) and were properly monitored in order to test the thermal behaviour of their walls in summer and winter conditions in two different climates. During the first 28 days, all of the samples were seasoned under conditions of a high relative humidity of 95%. Lucon O, Ürge-Vorsatz D A, et al. Reiterman, P.; Pazderka, J. Crystalline coating and its influence on the water transport in concrete. Parte V: Control de la ejecución. Puigverd de Lleida prototype #2: (a) Detail of facade-roof section, (b) Plan. rammed earth; cement stabilized rammed earth; durability; frost resistance; cold climates; humid continental climate; continental climate, An Introduction to Weather, Climate and the Environment, NZS 4298:1998 Materials and Workmanship for Earth Buildings, Building with Earth. Yes, in an earthquake zone our rammed earth walls are engineered to withstand a major earthquake. The compressive strength test for water-saturated samples was carried out immediately after they were removed from the water and wiped off, and on dried samples—after they were removed from the dryers. [. Finally, the results obtained are compared with literature values presented in Barbeta [15] and Bauluz and Bárcena [26] that present a range of theoretical values of compressive strength of rammed earth. Because the tire is full of soil, it does not burn when exposed to fire. However, although the thickness of rammed earth is a determining factor, it is important to remark that the more extreme ambient temperature differences between day and night (in the Puigverd de Lleida climate) have a stronger negative effect on the rammed earth wall, having wider thermal amplitudes in the outer surface of 15°C in summer and 17°C in winter. However, these structural limitations can be avoided if rammed earth is used as an enclosure. PN-EN 12390-3:2019-07 Testing Hardened Concrete. Assessing the environmental performance of stabilized rammed earth walls using a climatic simulation chamber. Moreover, thermal behaviour disadvantages can be reduced, for example, by the implementation of insulation materials attached to the external side of the wall; by a passive design (orientation, openings, shadows, etc.) The walls have an organic beauty in their raw form. When the reduction of the thermal amplitude is quantified, it can be noticed that thermal amplitude was strongly reduced achieving reduction of 77% in summer and 70% in winter periods. ���C.�n��&�fX�AS9�R���� �2�9�� $ )'��I1�R4�KC.UPU �����h���4�ģD4=@S�Ȧ h����A�K19D.�%�*���\ Kottek M, Grieser J, Beck C, Rudolf B, Rubel F. Margarit i Roset J. Els graus-dia de calefacció i refrigeració de Catalunya: resultats a nivell municipal. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, Synergistic effect of ZnO nanoparticles with organic compound as corrosion inhibition, Thermodynamic assessment and performance optimization of solid oxide fuel cell-Stirling heat engine–reverse osmosis desalination, Design of tunnel drier for the non-centrifugal sugar industry, Performance evaluation of a novel PVT-GSHP heating system on energy-efficient poultry houses: long-term monitoring, Dynamic and steady-state analysis of steam reforming of methane to hydrogen in a reformer for electric-powered unmanned aerial vehicle, About International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. Loam, sand and gravel were chosen for laboratory tests so as to obtain mixtures similar to typical inorganic soils obtained locally on construction sites. Weathering further reduced the MBV when unreacted stabiliser was present. Compressive strength is the single biggest determinant of durability. Puigverd de Lleida samples results show that compaction method used modifies the results of compressive strength, being 10% higher if samples are compacted mechanically. In the case of the 50 cm wall, thermal amplitude of inner surface temperature wall was reduced 80% in summer and 75% in winter in these specific conditions. You seem to have javascript disabled. They consist of two house-like cubicle buildings that are analysed in summer and winter conditions by measuring free floating temperature profile of the south wall of both prototypes. Samples with 9% of cement, dried to solid mass, reached the strength of about 18 MPa, and with 6% cement—about 13 MPa (, Despite the high compressive strength values that were obtained on samples dried to a constant mass, the ratio for all tested series of samples were within the range that was proposed in the publication [, The frost resistance test was carried out on a series of samples from mixtures 433 and 703 containing 6% and 9% of cement by weight. Rammed earth can be classified as stabilized and non-stabilized. Barcelona compositions were manually rammed because of Casa S-Low Company requirements but, in order to check the variability of results depending on the compaction method used, Puigverd de Lleida samples were both manually and mechanically rammed. 0, `��R�M�!t�t���)!� K�M���3�ږ��������E�,͝�{��9sΙ��PB�?���deMeUudU�5'Q�jZ[:��{���C���������tM�ގ�ߴtd��~yS(!EW�{��e�W��O��/ Q�]��Bb�� )�e�Z8�����;�2��.={�����}y��E�g�{�o�#�r!��-B�. Rammed earth is considered a very sustainable solution due to its low embodied energy, small materials treatment process, long service life and high recyclability [4]. Furthermore, compressive strength of rammed earth samples that have different stabilizers, such as cement, expanded clay and straw is tested at laboratory scale. Only if rammed earth is sufficiently strong can it be viable in very cold and very wet climates. Little B, Morton T. Building with earth in Scotland: Innovative design and sustainability. … We add rigid insulation inside the rammed earth wall for thermal resistance as well as steel re-bar for seismic reinforcement. %PDF-1.5 ; Morel, J.C.; Reddy, B.W. ; Finlayson, B.L. From an energy point of view, earth walls have a good thermal behaviour due to their high mass and can contribute, with proper natural ventilation strategies, to the indoor building comfort providing high thermal inertia to deal with the day–night temperature changes [8, 9]. Recently, stabilisation of RE has become a common practice to improve the mechanical resistance but very little is known about the effect that stabilisation has on hygroscopic properties. The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal, © 1996-2020 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated. Rammed earth is not recommended for tropical climates where high mass construction can cause a house to hold too much heat and cause thermal discomfort (see Thermal mass). The optimum moisture content (OMC) is the water content at which a soil can be compacted to the maximum dry density by a given compactive effort [, The nature of the compaction curve, as well as the optimum moisture content for a given soil type, depend on the compaction method and energy used. Temperatures of Barcelona cubicles are measured using thermocouples type K with accuracy 0.75%. The test described above provides important information on the water resistance of the lateral surface of the material.

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