were gulag prisoners paid
In 1953, amnesty was given to 70% of the "ordinary criminals" of a sample camp studied by the CIA. Living and working conditions in the camps varied significantly across time and place, depending, among other things, on the impact of broader events (World War II, countrywide famines and shortages, waves of terror, sudden influx or release of large numbers of prisoners). The centralised detention facilities temporarily ceased functioning. In addition, scarcity of machinery and tools plagued the camps, and the tools that the camps did have quickly broke. During this time, it is estimated that around six to seven million people starved to death. [2][3][4] However, some historians question the reliability of such data and instead rely heavily on literary sources that come to higher estimations. startxref Prisoners sentenced to "katorga works" were sent to Gulag prison camps with the most harsh regime and many of them perished.[74]. [5] According to other estimates, at the beginning of 1953 the total number of prisoners in prison camps was more than 2.4 million of which more than 465,000 were political prisoners.[28]. However, according to the official data, the total number of sentences for political and anti-state (espionage, terrorism) crimes in USSR in 1939–41 was 211,106. [53], The legal base and the guidance for the creation of the system of "corrective labor camps" (Russian: исправи́тельно-трудовые лагеря, Ispravitel'no-trudovye lagerya), the backbone of what is commonly referred to as the "Gulag", was a secret decree from the Sovnarkom of July 11, 1929, about the use of penal labor that duplicated the corresponding appendix to the minutes of the Politburo meeting of June 27, 1929. Robert Conquest, Paul Hollander: Political violence: belief, behavior, and legitimation p.55, Palgrave Macmillan;(2008), General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Main Administration for Affairs of Prisoners of War and Internees, Soviet Union invaded and annexed eastern parts, massacred many to prevent them from falling into German hands, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Family members of "Traitors of the Motherland", The Long Walk: The True Story of a Trek to Freedom, Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Political Repressions, Day of Victims of the Repression (October 30), List of concentration and internment camps, Federal Prisons System of the Russian Federation, Persecution of Christians in the Soviet Union, Political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, USSR anti-religious campaign (1970s–1990), Concentration camps in the Independent State of Croatia, Internment camps in Sweden during World War II, http://www.memo.ru/history/NKVD/GULAG/r1/r1-4.htm, "GOLFO ALEXOPOULOS. [109] The bodies of inmates who tried to escape were commonly displayed in the courtyards of the camps, and the administrators would forcibly escort the inmates around the dead bodies as a message. However, prisoner mortality in Norilsk in most periods was actually lower than across the camp system as a whole. In 1929 Maxim Gorky visited the camp and published an apology for it. [1], The hypothesis that economic considerations were responsible for mass arrests during the period of Stalinism has been refuted on the grounds of former Soviet archives that have become accessible since the 1990s, although some archival sources also tend to support an economic hypothesis. Eventually Solovki turned into an ordinary Gulag camp; in fact some historians maintain that it was a pilot camp of this type. Книга: За что сажали при Сталине. Klara was one of those deported, aged 14, … [46] These camps, as Lenin envisioned them, had a distinctly political purpose. While serving his sentence he wrote a letter to the camp administration detailing a number of "productivity improvement" proposals including the infamous system of labor exploitation whereas the inmates' food rations were to be linked to their rate of production, a proposal known as nourishment scale (шкала питания). (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1947), p. 59-62. Besides a wide array of punishments for prisoners refusing to work (which, in practice, were sometimes applied to prisoners that were too enfeebled to meet production quota), they instituted a number of positive incentives intended to boost productivity. Gheith, Jehanne M., and Katherine R. Jolluck. [41] Under the Imperial Russian penal system, those convicted of less serious crimes were sent to corrective prisons and also made to work. [45] It resulted in their increased share in the overall composition of the camp prisoners. [8][9] The estimate of Alexopoulos however; has obvious methodological difficulties[2] and is supported by misinterpreted evidence such as presuming that hundreds of thousands of prisoners “directed to other places of detention” in 1948 was a euphemism for releasing prisoners on the verge of death into labor colonies, when it was really referring to internal transport in the Gulag rather than release. His proposals soon saw widespread adoption in the Gulag system[54]. [84][85][86] However, that is a confusion with two other types of camps. One Soviet report stated that, in early 1933, up to 15% of the prison population in Soviet Uzbekistan died monthly. [78] On February 11, 1945, at the conclusion of the Yalta Conference, the United States and United Kingdom signed a Repatriation Agreement with the Soviet Union. 1999. She argues that the Gulag system was not merely political repression because the system survived and grew long after Stalin had wiped out all serious political resistance. xref They were known as "free settlers" (вольнопоселенцы, volnoposelentsy; not to be confused with the term ссыльнопоселенцы, ssyl'noposelentsy, "exile settlers"). Despite its low capital costs, the camp economy suffered from serious flaws. Thus, Sergei Maksudov alleged that although literary sources, for example the books of Lev Razgon or Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, did not envisage the total number of the camps very well and markedly exaggerated their size, on the other hand, Viktor Zemskov, who published many documents by the NKVD and KGB, was far from understanding of the Gulag essence and the nature of socio-political processes in the country. In fact, based on Sousa's (1998)research, there was a larger percentage of prisoners (relative to the whole population) in the US, than there ever was in the USSR: “In a rather small news item appearing in the newspapers of August 1997, the FLT-AP news agency reported that in the US there had never previously been so many people in the prison system as the 5.5 million held in 1996. [76] To improve the situation, laws were implemented in mid-1940 that allowed giving short camp sentences (4 months or a year) to those convicted of petty theft, hooliganism, or labor-discipline infractions. [20] Analysis of the official GULAG statistics by Western scholars immediately demonstrated that, despite their inconsistency, they do not support previously published higher estimates. Volume 2: Structure and Personnel, The Heads of the Central Committee of NKVD, Lubyanka. Cited in David Dallin and Boris Nicolaevsky, Forced Labor in Soviet Russia. ", Barenberg, Alan, Wilson T. Bell, Sean Kinnear, Steven Maddox, and, Bell, Wilson T. 2013. 00447, tens of thousands of Gulag inmates were executed in 1937–38 for "continuing counterrevolutionary activities". These included monetary bonuses (since the early 1930s) and wage payments (from 1950 onward), cuts of individual sentences, general early-release schemes for norm fulfilment and overfulfilment (until 1939, again in selected camps from 1946 onward), preferential treatment, and privileges for the most productive workers (shock workers or Stakhanovites in Soviet parlance). 0000005160 00000 n [61] These prisons were meant to receive inmates that received a prison sentence that exceeded three years. Glasnost' and the Gulag: New Information on Soviet Forced Labor around World War II. [23], In the late 2000s, some human rights activists accused authorities of gradual removal of Gulag remembrance from places such as Perm-36 and Solovki prison camp. A camp administrator said in a meeting: "There are cases when a prisoner is given only four or five hours out of twenty-four for rest, which significantly lowers his productivity." In 1995, Zemskov wrote that foreign scientists have begun to be admitted to the restricted-access collection of these documents in the State Archive of the Russian Federation since 1992.

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